The district Bardhaman / Burdwan, one of the western districts of the Bardhaman / Burdwan Division, is situated between 22° 56 ‘ and 23° 53’ north latitude and between 86° 48‘ and 88° 25‘ east longitude. It contains an area of 2689 Square Miles as ascertained by the latest survey, and a population, according to the census of 2001 of 6919698 Persons. Bardhaman / Burdwan, the principal town and administrative headquarters, is situated on the north bank of the Banka, some 2 miles from the Damodar river, in 23° 14’ North, and 87° 51’ East. The name Bardhamana in the Vernacular is a corruption of the Sanskrit Vardhamana (the present participle passive of the verb vardh) implies “the increasing of prospectus.”
The district lies mainly between the Ajay, the Bhagirathi or Hooghly, and the Damodar rivers. It is bounded on the north by Birbhum and Mushirdabad; on the East by Nadia and Hooghly ; on the South by Hooghly and Bankura; and on the West Purulia. The Ajay separates it on the north from the Birbhum and Mushirdabad district forming a natural boundary line till shortly before its junction with the Bhagirathi; while on the South the Damodar, running parallel to the Ajay for a considerable portion of its course, forms the main boundary. A small portion of the Katwa subdivision lies to the north of the Ajay, and the Khandaghosh and Raina thanas of the head-quarters subdivision lie to the South of the Damodar, which here takes a sharp bend to the north-east. On the west the Barakar passes along the north-western boundary for a few miles before its junction with the Damodar and divides the district from District Purulia. On the east the Hooghly, known in its upper reaches as the Bhagirathi, formd the main boundary with Nadia.
In shape the district resembles a club or hammer, of which the handle consisting of the Asansol subdivision is some 60 Miles length.